Weekly Word Definition – Enlighten


“illumination” in every sense, used in the ordinary sense of giving natural light (Psalm 97:4 the King James Version; see also Ezra 9:8) or as a sign of health and vigor (1 Samuel 14:27, 29). “His eyes were enlightened,” literally, “became bright.” He had become weary and faint with the day’s exertions and anxieties, and now recovers (Job 33:30 and compare Psalm 13:3). Thus, in sickness and grief, the eyes are dull and heavy; dying eyes are glazed; but health and joy render them bright and sparkling, as with a light from within.

(2) In Psalm 18:28 the King James Version, The word nāghah, figuratively describes the believer’s deliverance from the gloom of adversity and the restoration of joy in the knowledge of God.

(3) Most frequently the terms so translated mean the giving of spiritual light to the soul (Psalm 19:8; Eph. 1:18, phōtízō; Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32). This spiritual enlightening the Spirit of God brings about through the Divine word (Psalm 119:130; 2 Tim. 3:15; 2 Peter 1:19). Sin mars the intellectual discernment; “but he that is spiritual discerned all things” (1 Cor. 2:15 King James Version, margin).

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

give (someone) greater knowledge and understanding about a subject or situation:

“Christopher had not enlightened Frances as to their relationship” Merriam-Webster

Weekly Devotional – Doing Good For The Sake Of The Gospel

Titus 2:1-15

Paul normally follows a rebuke of false doctrine with an admonition of how the believer should act (2 Tim. 3:10, 14). Sound means “healthy.” Paul makes frequent use of the term in the Pastoral Epistles.

While some people’s deeds disprove their claim to know God, Titus in contrast was to teach the people to live in a way consistent with sound teaching, in a way that would affirm rather than deny their claim to know God. The instruction addressed typical groups within the family structure (older men, older women, younger women, younger men, and slaves).

Paul views sound doctrine as the root that produces the fruit of sound practice (good works), such as faith, love, and patience (v. 2), as well as sound speech (v. 8). Right thinking is the raw material for right actions (Ps. 119:11; Prov. 23:7; Rom. 12:2; James 1:13-15). Our actions will naturally reveal the direction of our thoughts.

Teaching in these verses is practical and focuses on the domestic sphere. Paul emphasizes that older women can help model for young women what it means to be a wife and mother.

In keeping with the theme of good works (vs. 1, 2), older women are not to engage in evil practices like slander, gossip, or drunkenness; instead, they are to teach younger women.

In each of these verses, important statements are made about the desired result of “spiritual living.” Such living keeps us from providing a basis for the gospel (God’s message) to be slandered. Such living also highlights the attractiveness of the gospel.

This paragraph provides the theological basis for the lifestyle commended in verses 1-10. Christians should live sanctified lives because the grace of God that saves us also instructs us to live in a new way. A person cannot claim to be a recipient of God’s saving grace if he is not also a trainee in the lifestyle made possible by grace.

Paul concludes his instructions to various age groups by reminding Titus that his personal life is an essential aspect of his teaching. More people will learn from our daily actions than from what we say. Therefore, we must pay careful attention that our lives are in line with our beliefs.

This scripture has sometimes been misunderstood as saying that all people will be saved. However, such a reading is not made necessary by the words here, and it flatly contradicts other portions of Scripture. The force of all people is to emphasize the universal offer of the gospel. The offer of salvation is proclaimed not just to one group but to all peoples.

Godlessness refers to behavior that is not in accordance with God’s ways. Lusts refer not only to abnormal sexual desires but to sinful desires of the heart in general.

The verb used here for wait often carries the illusion of eagerness. The eager expectation of the return of Christ mentioned here is not just the time of the instruction of grace; it is also the way grace teaches us to renounce sin and live in a “godly way” (Titus 2:12). Setting our minds on the truth of Christ’s return impels us to holiness (1Jn 3:2-3). The blessed hope is the appearing of Christ. The reference to Jesus as God and Savior is a strong affirmation of His deity.

The phrase “people for His own possession” translates an unusual phrase with intentional echoes from the OT (Ex 19:5; Mal 3:17). The phrase expresses the sense of “prized, treasured possession” (1Pe 2:9).

This verse is an unmistakable call for authoritative teaching in the church.

As a teacher, I can tell you that there are not enough hours in a day to be able to teach you how to be a Christian. You learn to be a Christian by studying your bible one on one with God.

To show people we have changed our lives is not enough. Even satan changed his life after he was removed from heaven; however, he did not become a Christian.

The Holy Spirit is not given to us so we can allow Him to lead us every day, so He can tell us what to do every minute, so he can keep us from sin. That is not the mission of the Holy Spirit. The Mission of the Holy Spirit is to teach us and to pick us up “if we fall” not when we fall.

Weekly Word Definition – Election


The Scripture speaks

  1. of the election of individuals to office or to honor and privilege, e.g., Abraham, Jacob, Saul, David, Solomon, were all chosen by God for the positions they held; so also, were the apostles.
  2. There is also an election of nations to special privileges, e.g., the Hebrews (Deut 7:6; Rom 9:4).
  3. But in addition, there is an election of individuals to eternal life (2 Th. 2:13; Eph. 1:4; 1Pe 1:2; John 13:18).

The ground of this election to salvation is the good pleasure of God (Eph. 1:5, 11; Mat 11:25, 26; John 15:16, 19). God claims the right so to do (Rom 9:16, 21).

It is not conditioned on faith or repentance but is of sovereign grace (Rom 11:4-6; Eph. 1:3-6). All that pertain to salvation, the means (Eph. 2:8; 2Th 2:13) as well as the end, are of God (Acts 5:31; 2Ti 2:25; 1Co 1:30; Eph. 2:5, 10). Faith and repentance and all other graces are the exercises of a regenerated soul; and regeneration is God’s work, a “new creature.”

Men are elected “to salvation,” “to the adoption of sons,” “to be holy and without blame before him in love” (2Th 2:13; Gal 4:4, 5; Eph. 1:4). The ultimate end of election is the praise of God’s grace (Eph. 1:6, 12). Easton’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary

An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the Elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortation, also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.

Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections (especially with a view to predicting future results).

To elect means “to choose or decide”, and so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections, especially in the United States. Wikipedia

Weekly Devotional – A Call To Persevere

Jude 1:17-23

If the Holy Spirit could be bought, I figure it would be worth millions by now. But it can’t be bought with money. In fact, you must earn the Holy Spirit. Jesus tells us in John 14:15-17 that He would pray to the Father to send us a Helper only on one condition. Jesus stated, “if you love Me, keep My Commands.” That’s the condition! Keep My Commands.

After presenting the way to Heaven through the “narrow gate” (Matt. 7:13-14) Jesus warned the disciples about another gate that was opened wide and there were false prophets (Matt. 7:15-20) that would try to trick you into using the wrong gate. These false teachers were compared by Christ as being “ravenous wolves.”

Jude urged his readers to remember that these false teachers were nothing new because the apostles had foretold of such people who scoffed at those who refused to follow them. Jude may have referred to warnings like those in Ac 20:29-30 and 1Tim 4:1-3. The heretics created divisions and followed their ungodly desires. As people who were unbelievers, they did not have the Holy Spirit.

In warning the teachers of the Law and the Pharisees of their ultimate destruction if they continued on their present path, Jesus pronounced seven woes, each beginning with Woe to you. “Those woes, in contrast to the Beatitudes, denounce false religion as utterly detestable to God and worthy of severe condemnation. In six of the seven, Jesus called the leaders you hypocrites.

Jesus could call them hypocrites because He had already seen their fruit. The conduct of the Christian is listed in Matthew 5:3-12 and these are the ways we can demonstrate our love for Christ. These are the branches spoken of in John 15:1-8 and these branches bear the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22).

His first woe concerned the fact that the Pharisees were preventing others from entering the kingdom. Their hostility toward Jesus had caused many to turn away from Him. Many Jews were looking to their leaders for direction. Their failure to accept Jesus as Messiah had placed a stumbling block in the paths of their countrymen. For this, they stood condemned.

Paul warned of the false teachers (1Tim. 1:3-7) and told Timothy to oppose them. Again in 1 Timothy 6:2-10. Paul warns against the false teachers and points out their love for money. There are those who desire the attention brought by causing controversy among the people of the particular church congregation.

In 2 Timothy 2:14-26, Paul talks to Timothy about how he should deal with these false teachers. First and foremost we should be concerned for their souls and try to turn them around and bring them to Christ.

Peter also warned about these false prophets (teachers) (2Peter 2:1-22). Peter compared their punishment to several of the punishments God had exacted on the human race in the beginning. Peter talked about the fallen angels, the flood, the judgement on Sodom and Gomorrah and others. The result of this warning was to show the Believers what would eventually happen to these evil people.

After primarily describing the false teachers up to this point, Jude now exhorted his readers on how to contend for the faith (Jude 1:3). They were to show mercy to those who were wavering, reach out to those who had already been taken in and needed to be snatched from the fire (Amos 4:11; Zech. 3:2), and show concern for the wayward heretics, all at the same time. But believers were to be careful lest they also became defiled.

There are those that think they can go to church and listen to the preacher and that is all they need to do. Wrong! Each and every one of us must challenge the teachers and preachers by studing the lesson and the bible readings to make sure the teachers and preachers are really sent by God.

If we continue to just sit and do nothing, we are no better than the false teachers and preachers that are trying to destroy the church community.

Start with prayer to seek guidance from God. Then study your bible and allow God to teach you. You will find that God knows much more than you and the teacher or preacher you are trying to follow.

Weekly Word Definition – Bondage


the state of being a slave

the tenure or service of a villain, serf, or slave

:  a state of being bound usually by compulsion (as of law or mastery): such as

  1. captivity, serfdom
  2. servitude or subjugation to a controlling person or force young people in bondage to drugs


Used in two senses in Scripture, a literal and a metaphorical sense.

(1) In the former sense, it refers

  • (a) to the condition of the Hebrews (ăbhōdhāh) in Egypt (Exodus 1:14; 2:23) which is frequently called “the house of bondage,” Exodus 13:3, 14; 20:2; Deut. 5:6. It also refers to the condition of the Hebrews in Babylonia (Isaiah 14:3) and in Persia (Ezra 9:8), where a slightly different form of the same root (abhedhūth) is used in the original. In both these cases the bondage was not so much personal as national. As a rule, individuals were not subject to individuals, but the whole Hebrew people were subject to the Egyptian, Babylonian and the Persian states. They were forced to labor on public works, and otherwise, and were denied their own freedom when the exigencies of state seemed to demand it. The former word ʿăbhōdāh is also used in Neh. 5:18 as descriptive of the subject and depressed conditions of the Hebrews in Palestine during the earlier years after their return from captivity, when they were still living under Persian suzerainty.
  • (b) The word bondage ʿăbhādhīm is also used to describe the slavery into which the poor Jews were being forced by their more prosperous brethren in the earlier years under the Persians in Palestine (Neh. 5:5). Here true personal, though temporary, slavery is meant.
  • (c) Marriage is once referred to as a bondage (1 Cor. 7:15). It wasn’t the marriage that Paul was referring to, it was the obligations concerned with marriage.

(2) It is used in the metaphorical sense only in New Testament.

 “Bondage,” is the power of physical corruption as against the freedom of life (Romans 8:21), the power of fear as over against the confidence of Christian faith (Romans 8:15; Hebrews 2:15), and especially is it the bondage of the letter, of the elements, of a ceremonial and institutional salvation which must be scrupulously and painfully observed, as contrasted with the freedom of the sons of God, emancipated by faith in Jesus Christ. This bondage is a peculiarly Pauline idea since he was fighting for Christian freedom (Galatians 2:4; Galatians 4:3, 9, 24-25; Galatians 5:1). In 2 Peter 2:19 the idea is essentially different. Libertinism, masquerading under the name of freedom, is branded as bondage, in contrast with the true freedom of righteous living.

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Bondage to sin is not necessary. Those who are true Christians have nothing to do with bondage to sin.

Romans 6:4-6 (NKJV)

Therefore, we were buried with Him through baptism into death, that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been united together in the likeness of His death, certainly we also shall be in the likeness of His resurrection, knowing this, that our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves of sin.

Through our faith in Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit will guide us in a life free from sin if we will let Him. Don’t get caught up in bondage, it’s not worth it. Instead, listen to the Holy Spirit and live the bible every day. If you are living the bible, there will be no room for bondage in your life.

Weekly Devotional – The Prayer of Faith

James 5:13-20

In this section of James, we are going to talk about the most important and most powerful tool we have other than God’s Word. This tool is used in accordance with our relationship with God. How well we know God’s word, and how often we use this tool will determine how effective it is. Of course, we are talking about prayer. We are not talking about just any prayer; we are talking about the “Prayer of Faith.”

James used a series of questions followed by commands as an effective way of exhorting the congregation to prayer and worship. A fitting climax to James’ letter is his emphasis on prayer. The greatest assistance any believer can offer another is faithful prayer. Prayer is clear evidence of care. Prayer is the “hotline” to the One who can provide for any need no matter how complex or impossible it may seem. To share in prayer, a believer must have a sensitivity to someone’s needs, engage in diligent supplication for those needs, and recognize the significance of those needs.

  • James asked if anyone was suffering. James wasn’t talking about suffering pain due to illness. We know this because of his next question. What James was referring to was a type of suffering caused by a bad decision concerning our spiritual life.

Jesus Christ bore the grief and sorrows of humanity as the culmination of the “sufferings,” which is “pathēma” in Greek, begun by Adam’s sin (1 Pet. 2:24).

Throughout the centuries Christians have referred to Jesus’ sufferings as His Passion. Before Jesus experienced His “passion,” He told His disciples that they would encounter many trials and sorrows for His sake (John 16:33). Paul taught that entrance to the kingdom of God comes with many tribulations (Acts 14:22), which must not shake a Christian’s faith (1 Thess. 3:3). They are to be understood rather as a finishing up of the remainder of Christ’s suffering for His body, the church (2 Cor. 4:10-11; Col. 1:24).

The Bible says affliction will grow more intense as “the end” approaches (Matt. 24:9-14; 2 Tim. 3:13). Don’t allow these sufferings and troubles to turn you away from God. I know several who hate God because of losing a loved one, they want to know why God killed their baby, He didn’t. They want to know why God allowed their spouse to die, He didn’t.

Many preachers who are not well versed in the bible, and teachers also, have given them this impression of God. God does not steal, kill or test anyone. We are made in God’s image (Gen. 1:27) and God passed on to us His free will. As such, God cannot interfere with that free will. It is the wrong decisions we make that cause these things.

  • Is anyone sick? Call the Elders. Elders, who functioned in various capacities in the early church, should anoint any sick person with olive oil and pray over him. Olive oil was considered a cure-all ointment in the ancient world, but for James, the real healing power is in prayer.

The prayer of faith echoes James 1:5-8. The word save refers to physical healing (Mark5:23,28,34; 10:52; John 11:12). The Lord will restore the person to health does not indicate that death is at hand, but that once healed by the power of God the sick person could get up and walk (Mt 9:5-7; Mk 1:31; 2:9-12; 9:27; Ac 3:7).

He will be forgiven indicates that perhaps the illness was connected with sin, such as drunk driving, and the prayers of the elders could bring spiritual healing as well. If the person confesses their trespasses as James indicates in verse 16 and repents of them, God will welcome them into the church.

Weekly Word Definition – Perfect


  1. In the Old Testament:

“Perfect” in the Old Testament is the translation of shālēm, “finished,” “whole,” “complete,” used (except in Deut. 25:15, “perfect weight”) of persons, e.g. a “perfect heart,” i.e. wholly or completely devoted to Yahweh (1 Kings 8:61, etc.; 1 Chron. 12:38; Isaiah 38:3, etc.); tāmīm, “complete,” “perfect,” “sound or unblemished,” is also used of persons and of God, His way, and law (“Noah was a just man and perfect,” the Revised Version margin “blameless” (Genesis 6:9); “As for God, his way is perfect” (Psalm 18:30); “The law of Yahweh is perfect” (Psalm 19:7), etc.); tām, with the same, meaning, occurs only in Job, except twice in Psalms (Job 1:1, 8; Job 2:3, etc.; Psalm 37:37; Psalm 64:4); kālīl, “complete,” and various other words are translated “perfect.”

Perfection is the translation of various words so translated once only: kālīl (Lament. 2:15); mikhlāl, “completeness” (Psalm 50:2); minleh, “possession” (Job 15:29, the King James Version “neither shall the prolong the perfection thereof upon the earth,” the American Standard Revised Version “neither shall their possessions be extended on the earth,” margin “their produce bend to the earth”; the English Revised Version reverses this text and margin); tikhlāh, “completeness,” or “perfection (Psalm 119:96); takhlīth (twice), “end,” “completeness” (Job 11:7, “Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?” Job 28:3, “searcheth out all the Revised Version (British and American) the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) “to the furthest bound”; compare Job 26:10, “unto the confines of light and darkness”); tōm, “perfect,” “completeness” (Isaiah 47:9, the King James Version “They shall come upon thee in their perfection,” the Revised Version (British and American) “in their full measure”). The Revised Version margin gives the meaning of “the Urim and the Thummim” (Exodus 28:30, etc.) as “the Lights and the Perfections.”

2. In the New Testament:

In the New Testament “perfect” is usually the tr of teleios, primarily, “having reached the end,” “term,” “limit,” hence, “complete,” “full,” “perfect” (Matthew 5:48, “Ye therefore shall be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect”; Matthew 19:21, “if thou wouldst be perfect; Ephes. 4:13, the King James Version “till we all come …. unto a perfect man,” the Revised Version (British and American) “full-grown”; Phil. 3:15, “as many as are perfect,” the American Revised Version margin “full-grown”; 1 Cor. 2:6; Col. 1:28, “perfect in Christ”; 4:12; James 3:2 margin, etc.).

Other words are teleióō. “to perfect,” “to end,” “complete” (Luke 13:32, “The third day I am perfected,” the Revised Version margin “end my course”; John 17:23, “perfected into one”; 2 Cor. 12:9; Phil. 3:12, the Revised Version (British and American) “made perfect”; Hebrews 2:10, etc.); also epiteléō, “to bring through to an end” (2 Cor. 7:1, “perfecting holiness in the fear of God”; Galatians 3:3, “Are ye now made perfect by the flesh?” the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) “perfected in the flesh,” margin “Do ye now make an end in the flesh?”); katartízō “to make quite ready,” “to make complete,” is translated “perfect,” “to perfect” (Matthew 21:16, “perfected praise”; Luke 6:40, “Every one when he is perfected shall be as his teacher”; 1 Cor. 1:10; 2 Cor. 13:11, “be perfected”; 1 Thes. 3:10; 1 Peter 5:10, the Revised Version margin “restore”); akribṓs, “accurately,” “diligently,” is translated “perfect” (Luke 1:3, “having had perfect understanding,” the Revised Version (British and American) “having traced …. accurately”; Acts 18:26 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) “more accurately”). We have also ártios, “fitted,” “perfected” (2 Tim. 3:7, the Revised Version (British and American) “complete”); plēróō, “to fill,” “to make full” (Rev. 3:2, the American Standard Revised Version “perfected,” the English Revised Version “fulfilled”); katartismós, “complete adjustment,” “perfecting” (Ephes. 4:12, “for the perfecting of the saints”).

Perfection is the translation of katártisis “thorough adjustment,” “fitness” (2 Cor. 13:9, the Revised Version (British and American) “perfecting”); of teleíōsis (Hebrews 7:11); of teleiótēs (Hebrews 6:1, the Revised Version margin “full growth”); it is translated “perfectness” (Col. 3:14); “perfection” in Luke 8:14 is the translation of telesphoréō, “to bear on to completion or perfection.” In Apocrypha “perfect,” “perfection,” etc., are for the most part the translation of words from télos, “the end,” e.g. Wisdom 4:13; Sirach 34:8; Sirach 44:17; Sirach 45:8, suntéleia “full end”; Sirach 24:28; Sirach 50:11.

The Revised Version (British and American) has “perfect” for “upright” (2 Samuel 22:24, 26 twice); for “sound” (Psalm 119:80); for “perform” (Phil. 1:16); for “undefiled” (Psalm 119:1, margin “upright in way”); for “perfect peace, and at such a time” (Ezra 7:12), “perfect and so forth”; for “He makes my way perfect” (2 Samuel 22:33), “He guided the perfect in his way,” margin “or, `sets free.’ According to another reading, `guided my way in perfectness'”; “shall himself perfect,” margin “restore,” for, “make you perfect” (1 Peter 5:10); “perfecter” for “finisher” (Hebrews 12:2); “perfectly” is omitted in the Revised Version (British and American) (Matthew 14:36); “set your hope perfectly on” for the King James Version “hope to the end for” (1 Peter 1:13).

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

Weekly Devotional – 4 Sept 2021

Listening and Doing

James 1:19-27

In verses 19-21 we deal with a subject that is so wrongfully taught in our churches, anger. There are many church denominations that teach the sin of anger. Naturally, they don’t give scripture references because there aren’t any to be found.

James didn’t say that anger was a sin, he simply stated that anger would not lead to the righteousness God wants us to have. The sin is in the action taken because of the anger. People who have problems with anger usually let the anger linger and it turns to malice and sometimes vengeance.

Paul told the people at Ephesus. “be angry, but do not sin.” (Ephesians 4:26) Paul went on to say that we should not allow this anger to linger through the night. We should resolve the anger before the sun goes down. If you do as Paul tells you, the problem will go away. Your anger won’t turn to anything that is a sin.

Did you know that most people who get angry are expressing their disappointment with themselves? Don’t take that anger out on someone else. Listen to the other person, if they make you angry, simply excuse yourself and walk away. Anger without actions only leads to ulcers and never affects the other person.

Herein lies my problem. I don’t wait. I usually start saying things that offend. I never use vulgar language or anything of that sort. God took that type of language from me years ago. But I do have to apologize to that person and make it right. Behavior of this sort is not a sin, but it does not lead to the righteousness that God wants Christians to display at all times. Don’t allow the world to make you look bad to God.

In verses 22-27, James is talking about actions connected to our faith. Many churches teach that we are saved by faith alone and you don’t need anything else. While they are correct about you being saved and your sins were forgiven, they fail to mention the rest of the story.

Being saved is only the second of many steps that must be taken to attain salvation. Jesus tells us in Matthew 7:21 that these people, who have only the faith, will not enter the kingdom of Heaven. The action Jesus mentions here is that you do the will of the Father. You can’t go to church on Sunday and listen to the preacher or teacher and hope to do the will of the Father. You must study the bible for yourself also.

When our pastor preaches, I follow his bible reading myself and then I listen to what he says and I know he is telling the truth. How do I know that? Because I have studied the bible for many years with God, with the pastor, and with different teachers. I have taken courses online that were recommended by those I know are truly called by God to teach or preach.

Not everyone who comes to church and professes to be a Christian are my brothers and sisters in Christ. Some of them are Believers, some of them are confused and have been deceived, some are just pretending to be Christians to impress their friends (Matthew 12:49-50).

People who live “in Christ” also live in the love of Christ. We must follow the commands of God and of Jesus in order to live “in Christ.” In John 15;9-17, Jesus tells us how we can accomplish this. If we are brothers and sisters in Christ, we must have the same love for God and for each other that Jesus had. Jesus said, “if you keep my Commands you will remain in my love.” Jesus went on to say that we should keep those commands as He had kept the Father’s commands. Jesus never sinned, because He lived as the Father had told Him to live. If we study the bible, prayerfully, we will learn both the Father’s commands and those of Christ.

James sums up this whole thing in today’s scripture reading. In verse 22 James tells us, “Do not merely listen to the word, and deceive yourselves. Do what it says.” In other words, we must listen to the teachers and preachers but more importantly, we must study the word, then we must live what we have heard and what we have learned through studying the word. If we can’t live the word every day, we deceive ourselves and are not Christians

Don’t be deceived!!!

Weekly Word Definition – Bishop


New Testament Use:

The word is once applied to Christ himself, “unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls” (1 Peter 2:25). It abounds in Pauline literature, and is used as an alternative for presbyters or elder (Titus 1:5, 7; 1 Tim. 3:1; Tim. 4:14; Tim. 5:17, 19). The earliest ecclesiastical offices instituted in the church were those of elders and deacons, or rather the reverse, since the latter office grew almost immediately out of the needs of the Christian community at Jerusalem (Acts 6:1-6). The presbyter constitution of Jerusalem must have been very old (Acts 11:30) and was distinct from the apostolate (Acts 15:2, 4, 6, 22-23; Acts 16:4). As early as 50 AD Paul appointed “elders” in every church, with prayer and fasting (Acts 14:23), referring to the Asiatic churches before established. But in writing to the Philippians (Phil. 1:1) he speaks of “bishops” and “deacons.” In the Gentile Christian churches this title evidently had been adopted; and it is only in the Pastoral Epistles that we find the name “presbyters” applied. The name “presbyter” or “elder,” familiar to the Jews, signifies their age and place in the church; while the other term “bishop” refers rather to their office. But both evidently have reference to the same persons. Their office is defined as “ruling” (Romans 12:8), “overseeing” (Acts 20:17, 28; 1 Peter 5:2), caring for the flock of God (Acts 20:28). But the word archeín, “to rule,” in the hierarchical sense, is never used. Moreover, each church had a college of presbyter-bishops (Acts 20:17, 28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 4:14). During Paul’s lifetime, the church was evidently still unaware of the distinction between presbyters and bishops.

Of a formal ordination, in the later hierarchical sense, there is no trace as yet. The word “ordained” used in the King James Version (Acts 1:22) is an unwarrantable interpolation, rightly emended in the Revised Version (British and American). Neither the word “cheirotonésantes” (Acts 14:23, translated “appointed” the American Standard Revised Version) nor katastésēs (Titus 1:5, translated “appoint” the American Standard Revised Version) is capable of this translation. In rendering these words invariably by “ordain” the King James Version shows a “victium originis”. No one doubts that the idea of ordination is extremely old in the history of the church, but the laying on of hands, mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 13:3; 1 Tim. 4:14; 2 Tim. 1:6; compare Acts 14:26; Acts 15:40) points to the communication of a spiritual gift or to its invocation, rather than to the imparting of an official status.

Later Development of the Idea:

According to Rome, as finally expressed by the Council of Trent, and to the episcopal idea in general, the hierarchical organization, which originated in the 3rd century, existed from the beginning in the New Testament church. But besides the New Testament as above quoted, the early testimony of the church maintains the identity of “presbyters” and “bishops.” Thus, Clement of Rome (Epistle 1, chapters 42, 44, 57), the Didache, chapter 15; perhaps the Constitutions, II, 33, 34, in the use of the plural form; Ambrosiaster (on 1 Tim. 3:10; Ephes. 4:11), Chrysostom (Hom. 9 in Ep. ad Tim), in an unequivocal statement, the “presbyters of old were called bishops …. and the bishop’s presbyters,” equally unequivocally Jerome (Titus, 1, 7), “the same is the presbyter, who is also the bishop.” Augustine and other Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries hold this view, and even Peter Lombard, who preceded Aquinas as the great teacher of the church of the Middle Ages. Hatch of Oxford and Harnack of Berlin, in the face of all this testimony, maintain a distinction between the presbyters, as having charge of the law and discipline of the church, and the bishops, as being charged with the pastoral care of the church, preaching and worship. This theory is built upon the argument of prevailing social conditions and institutions, as adopted and imitated by the church, rather than on sound textual proof. The distinction between presbyters and bishops can only be maintained by a forced exegesis of the Scriptures. The later and rapid growth of the hierarchical idea arose from the accession of the Ebionite Christian view of the church, as a necessary continuation of the Old Testament dispensation, which has so largely influenced the history of the inner development of the church in the first six centuries of her existence.

The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

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